In her famous monograph ‘Death without weeping’, anthropologist Scheper-Hughes1 argues that social scientists should be involved in ‘epistemological struggles’ about how knowledge is generated, the interests it serves and how we can make social science more relevant and non-oppressive. These themes were implicitly and explicitly woven into the programme of the 9th biannual conference of the International Society of Critical Health Psychology (ISCHP) in Grahamstown, South Africa. ISCHP conferences excite me because they are, as is to be expected, critical (of e.g. methods, social injustice and psychology) and interdisciplinary. I would like to share some key messages of two keynotes which stood out for me, which I think will interest many social scientists working on health, care and social justice.
Lesley Swartz (Distinguished Professor, Stellenbosch University) provided insightful reflections on notions of care and ethics. For instance, the currently popular notion of ‘task-shifting’ reduces care to a series of impersonal tasks, and overlooks and obscures the centrality of intimacy and interpersonal relationships to care. Much of the care people receive is performed by informal workers, such as cleaners or security guards, who often remain invisible. However, increasing their visibility and formalising their caring risks changing the dynamics in such a way that the most valuable aspects of their work are lost. Another danger Swartz commented on is that we make nursing care look good for funders from the global North; instead, we must focus on localised forms of care and what is contextually appropriate. Indeed, global theories of health and well-being appear to apply to some bodies but not others. On-going reflection on the multiple meanings of health, well-being and care is required.
Michelle Fine (Distinguished Professor, City University New York) also asked us to reflect critically on the categories and concepts we use in our research. In her keynote she unpacked the notion of precarity, using stark examples of racism and other forms of structural violence in the US and South Africa. Fine pointed out that to some extent we all ‘know’ precarity, although most certainly it affects some much more than others. After all, we live in a fundamentally unequal world, in which policy decisions are made which determine who will live and who will die. The precarity of elites deserves attention given their ‘aggressive appetite’ to reclaim power and control if threatened, often shrouded in the suggestion that it is ‘for people’s own good’. We witnessed this in the extremely powerful and upsetting documentary Miners Shot Down, which shows how a ‘toxic collusion’ of powerful players led to the killing of 34 South African miners in 2012, the subsequent prosecution of miners and impunity for those responsible for the killing.
Fine reminded us that ‘there is a wisdom in precarity which we ought to honour’; and that we should avoid simplistic categories which box people in and are out of sync with their life-world. We can work ‘alongside and in solidarity with’ marginalized people by using participatory research methods, such as asking LGBT youth to design their own survey tools to explore their experiences, or asking participants to read, literally, between the lines of newspaper articles and write down the ‘real’ story. These Freirian methods help them to not merely sit at the table, but change the table too.
These keynotes offered a valuable reflective space and made visible what we normally ‘look past’. This can also be achieved by communication studies, as Swartz noted. A number of presentations, my own included, discussed analyses of language use in health care settings. Language may appear too ‘micro’ and insignificant for those with an interest in social justice. Yet, language is central to health care and will affect its quality and fairness. It can be usefully explored as a tool to construct realities and perform social actions. My own work on loss in childbearing in Malawi illustrates how women can be held accountable for pregnancy complications, for instance by discursively framing them as an ‘uncooperative woman’ rather than as someone who lacks the energy to push during labour. Discursive studies can provide new perspectives on social justice themes such as how (gendered) identity, knowledge and power are co-constructed and operate in health care interactions2.
The ISCHP conference then, was a powerful reminder of the need to remain critical of the categories and concepts we use; the topics we focus on; and of the many methodological tools and disciplinary perspectives we can use to foster health, care and social justice.
1 Scheper-Hughes, N. (1992). Death without weeping: The violence of everyday life in Brazil. Berkely: University of California Press.
2 I make a similar point in my chapter ‘Discursive Psychology and its potential to make a difference’, published in C. Horrocks and Johnstone (eds). (2012). Advances in Health Psychology: Critical Approaches. Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan.
IIHD Research Fellow, Rebecca Horn writes about support for children in Sierra Leone affected by ebola
Supporting teachers to support children affected by ebola: An account of Psychosocial Support Training for teachers in Sierra Leone
Rebecca Horn, January 2015
I first came across EducAid Sierra Leone in 2007 when I was working for the Special Court for Sierra Leone – it was the one spark of positivity in what seemed to be a country struggling to emerge from years of war. Since then, I’ve been back to Sierra Leone several times, a few of these on a voluntary basis to conduct trainings for EducAid staff and students (e.g. on research methods), and to help them develop a monitoring and evaluation strategy.
EducAid has gone from strength to strength in the time I’ve known it, and continues to inspire me with the professionalism, compassion and strength of the students and staff. It has responded to the ebola crisis with typical resilience, immediately becoming involved in community awareness activities, creating podcasts and other resources to enable the students who were not in school (due to the State of Emergency which includes school closure until further notice) to continue to learn, and continuing to support those boys and girls who didn’t go home for the holidays but lived in the schools.
EducAid has several schools, two in Port Loko, a district which has been particularly badly hit by ebola. It wasn’t long before community leaders started contacting EducAid staff to ask whether they could take in some children who had lost their parents to ebola, and their extended families could not afford to take care of them. As a result, EducAid opened an Observation, Interim Care Centre (OICC) in one of its schools, where children would be monitored and cared for until they were confirmed to be free of ebola (after 21 days). In a different school, they opened an Interim Care Centre (ICC), for children who had already gone through a quarantine period, just to be sure that the children were ebola-free before they joined the main school. The EducAid management wanted to be sure that the teachers had the skills to (a) support the children who had lost parents and other relatives to ebola, and (b) help the new arrivals to integrate into the main school after their quarantine period successfully, without experiencing the discrimination or rejection commonly reported by those affected by ebola. I agreed to come and spend two weeks with a group of teachers from all the EducAid schools exploring these issues and helping them to develop some skills and plans of action, which the teachers would then share with their colleagues. This blog is an account of my two weeks with EducAid in Port Loko, Sierra Leone.
The training will take place over eight days, with five days on input and five ‘practice days’, where the participants have an opportunity to use the skills they have practiced in the classroom and to reflect and get feedback on them. The aims of the training are:
- To enable participants to strengthen the psychosocial wellbeing of children in the ICC.
- To enable participants to help the children integrate into the main school from the ICC (focusing on the wellbeing of both the new arrivals and the existing school community)
- To enable participants to take care of their own psychosocial wellbeing, so they can support others
The training focuses on both knowledge and skills, and will include an element of planning how to put what has been learned into practice, and share with others.
We have twelve participants, two from each of the EducAid schools. Four of the participants are female staff; a significant proportion in a country where women struggle to obtain the education, confidence and positive attitude necessary to enable them to teach and mentor others.
Monday 19th Jan 2015
We began today with the foundations – in the morning, a workshop on understanding psychosocial wellbeing. The aim of this was to help the twelve participants understand how the wellbeing of the children they work with consists of various inter-related ‘domains’, including physical wellbeing, material wellbeing, social wellbeing, cultural wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, spiritual wellbeing and thinking and learning (mental wellbeing). We explored participants’ ideas about what children need for good ‘wellbeing’, and what EducAid already does to strengthen the different aspects of children’s wellbeing.
EducAid differs from most schools in Sierra Leone in the emphasis it puts on ‘giving back’ to the community and the country. The fees for attending the school are not financial, but are ‘excellent effort, excellent attendance and excellent behaviour’, and these core values are reinforced by staff and older students. The school environment, therefore, has a very holistic view of ‘achievement’ and ‘success’, and this is reflected in participants’ understanding of what constitutes wellbeing. Many of the twelve participants are former EducAid students, who have now joined the staff, and their level of maturity and integrity is striking. I have done the ‘wellbeing exercise’ in many different contexts, but this is the first place where people have said that key aspects of wellbeing are honesty, integrity, concern for others, and so on.
In the afternoon we had a more practical session, focusing on developing and practising basic listening skills, including active listening and helpful responding. We practised listening and trying to hear and reflect what someone was really saying to us. These skills are generally useful, but tomorrow we’ll move on to thinking about how we can adapt them to help children to talk about their feelings and experiences.
Tuesday 20th Jan 2015
Today we began the training with a review of what participants found interesting and difficult from yesterday’s sessions. Several people were struggling with the idea that passing judgement on what somebody says, or giving advice, or asking a lot of questions were not helpful ways to really understand how a person is thinking and feeling. These are common ways of responding, particularly adults to children, and the idea of adopting a more neutral approach to try to understand a situation from another person’s perspective – to empathise – was challenging for some.
Our main focus of the morning was an orientation to Psychological First Aid (PFA). PFA is an approach developed and endorsed by a wide range of organisations working in humanitarian settings, led by WHO, World Vision International and War Trauma Foundation. It is for use in crisis situations, to provide humane, supportive and practical help to people in the immediate aftermath of a distressing event. In Sierra Leone it is being used by health care staff and psychosocial staff, as well as others working directly with individuals and communities affected by ebola. EducAid teaching staff are less likely to be in daily contact with individuals in the immediate aftermath of a crisis event, but it does happen and it is good for staff to know how to respond. For example, if a child gets news that a parent has died, or some other very distressing information, PFA may be appropriate.
A situation in which PFA would have been useful occurred today, and in fact the teacher involved did use many of the skills instinctively. A 12-year old girl had arrived in the ICC from her village last week and seemed to settle in well, but today was very distressed and said she was not sleeping well because ‘devils’ were talking to her, telling her she wasn’t safe in the ICC and should return to her village. The member of staff who taught this girl noticed she was not herself in the morning (the first principle of PFA is ‘Look’, or observe), and talked to her to find out what was concerning her (the second principle – ‘Listen’). He tried to address her concerns by taking her to somewhere in the compound where she felt safe, and bringing her clothes and other personal items in a plastic bag, as she requested. He discovered that the girl had come to EducAid with a female cousin, who she was close to, and he brought the cousin to sit with the girl, chat with her and comfort her. The teacher called the EducAid country director (Miriam) to ask for advice, (the third principle – ‘Link’), and was given the phone number for the uncle of the distressed girl, who lived in the village she had come from. The teacher called the uncle to explain the situation, and gave the phone to the girl, who talked to her uncle and seemed happier afterwards. After some time, she made the decision to return to the ICC and at the time of writing she is happy and relaxed.
In the afternoon’s training session, we returned to the basic listening skills we had covered yesterday, and thought about how they might need to be adapted for use with children. Through role-plays, demonstrations and discussions of cases, we explored how to listen and talk to a child in a way that can help us to understand her or his thoughts, feelings and experiences. The participants recognised the importance of this, and were able to give examples of times from their own childhoods when they had been listened to, and felt valued and safe, and it had given them confidence and a sense of belonging. However, when we discussed how we might respond if a child said they felt guilty about the death of a parent, all participants said that the most appropriate response would be to tell the child they were wrong to think this, that death comes to everyone and they should just accept it. There is a big difference between accepting in principle that a certain approach is a ‘good idea’, and applying it in practice. Participants were very familiar with the concept of empathy, and could describe it well, and explain why it is important – but listening to children in a supportive, non-judgemental way goes against traditional ways of interacting with children in Sierra Leone.
Participants are currently struggling to see how and why they would use this style of listening to a child in their context, although they can see that the skills we are learning are useful in other contexts. As teachers, they feel that they should be more directive in giving guidance and advice, and are finding it hard to identify the times when it might be helpful to take a different approach in their interactions with children. Tomorrow, we are having a ‘practice day’ where all 12 participants will practice their listening skills with some of the children in the Maronka school compound. They will be working independently, and will talk to at least one child each, using the listening and responding skills we have been focusing on over the last two days. They will not be talking to children who are known to have particular problems, and they will not focus on negative experiences, but more positive issues, such as a happy time in the child’s life or the things they like about being here in Maronka. The aim is for the participants to see for themselves how effective a non-judgemental, accepting approach to listening can be in understanding a child’s perspective.
Wednesday 21st Jan 2015
Most were quite anxious at the start of the practice day, and seemed reluctant to begin the task. I felt quite anxious myself, to be honest. What if the usual active listening and responding skills didn’t work in Sierra Leone for some reason? What if the participants gave up on them or decided they were no use to them? An hour or so later, as I saw one participant walking up towards the football field chatting with a small boy who walked alongside him, I felt more relaxed. I watched a female participant wandering around the wooded area below the school with a female student, and another participant playing with a child whilst talking to her. The participants had been told not to probe students’ problems or painful stories, since they were just practising their skills, but to explore more positive feelings, like the things that make the child happy, or some good times they have had, or the things they enjoy doing.
We all met later in the afternoon, and the participants shared their experiences. Some had found the exercise challenging, and most were struggling to move away from asking questions towards reflecting the content of what the child said and/ or their feelings, and using such statements to demonstrate understanding and encourage the child to share more about their thoughts and feelings. However, there were some great stories of participants using their skills well. One described how the child he was talking to seemed distracted, and he discovered that she had lost her slippers (flip-flops) that morning, so he helped her to search for them and once they had been found she was more able to talk to him. Addressing basic needs first! Another participant had dealt extremely well with a girl who became distressed and started crying. The opportunity to practice the skills had been very beneficial, both in terms of developing skills and confidence.
Thursday 22nd Jan 2015
The main work of the day was introducing the participants to some simple ways of using activities to help children talk about their thoughts, feelings and experiences. We practiced using drawings, small toy animals, story books, pictures and the process of creating stories with children, and using listening and responding skills to reflect on the drawing/ picture/ animals/ story and help the child to engage with it and relate it to their own thoughts and feelings. The participants had already noticed the previous day that children found it much easier to talk when they were doing something (walking, playing), so were open to these approaches. In addition, they saw how it is easier when using stories, toys or pictures for children to talk about distressing events or feelings, since they can project their feelings onto another character. The helper can use the fictional character or events to help children to recognise their own strengths, to normalise their experiences, or to recognise the consequences of their behaviour, amongst other things.
At the end of the day, the head teacher asked for some time to discuss an issue that had emerged and he wanted to share with his colleagues on the training. He had found some girls saying that they wanted to leave the school and return to their villages, and planning to behave badly so that they were sent away. It then emerged that some of the children in the ICC were also saying they wanted to go home. The whole group of trainees discussed how to approach this issue, and decided that they should each talk to one of the concerned children individually after the close of the day’s training session. They should spend some time trying to understand the child’s thoughts and feelings about being away from home, and the reasons they wanted to return. It may be that some of the issues could be addressed fairly simply (e.g. those related to basic needs, such as lack of clothing). For those children whose needs could not be addressed simply, the participants decided that they would try to help the child consider their options, and what the advantages and disadvantages would be of each. It may be that through this process, some children decided that although it was hard to be away from home, the advantages of the education and other opportunities offered by EducAid outweighed these difficulties, and they would stay. For those who still wanted to leave, the trainees would try to encourage them by using themselves as examples of people who had been through the EducAid system and now had good lives and were able to serve others. The children who still wanted to go home would be referred to Miriam for a decision to be made about the best way forward.
I was very encouraged by this exchange. It showed that the trainees (including the head teacher) really valued the skills they had learned, and saw opportunities to use them. They felt that they had something to offer, and were very realistic in their discussion about what they would be able to achieve through listening to the concerned children. They recognised the advantages of trying to understand the children’s thoughts and feelings before taking any other step, and that there were benefits to supporting the child to think through their options and the consequences of each, rather than simply advising them immediately. They also recognised that there may be some cases which need to be referred to a higher authority within the organisation (Miriam).
Friday 23rd Jan 2015
The trainees arrived to today’s session with very good feedback from their discussions with the children who were saying they wanted to go home. They had been to talk to them to find out their concerns, and, as expected, some of the issues were practical, such as not liking some of the food they were given. As well as individual conversations, some of the trainees tried some group activities to address the issues. One of the trainees asked the children to help him with a role play. He pretended to be very sad, and said he wanted to go home because he missed his parents and wasn’t happy in the ICC because he wasn’t allowed to move freely. One of the children came to talk to him, and explained all the reasons he should stay – that he was only in the ICC for 21 days, after this he could move freely, and education would benefit him in the future, and so on. By the end of the discussion, the children felt listened to and had identified for themselves some of the benefits of staying at EducAid.
Today was another practice day, with each trainee using one of the approaches we had introduced the day before – drawing, story-telling, using miniature animals, using pictures or story books – with at least one child, and writing a report describing their experiences, focusing on what had worked well and what they had found challenging, as well as how they might use these approaches when they returned to their workplaces. Only one was brave enough to try using the miniature animals with a child, but it worked surprisingly easily. Several used drawings, some used pictures (creating their own pictures because it was difficult to find relevant ones), some tried creating stories with children in order to explore issues affecting them, and one or two tried using a story book. All found the exercise challenging in some ways, but effective in terms of encouraging children to talk about their thoughts, feelings and experiences. These new approaches are slowly slowly starting to come more naturally, and to be seen as valuable.
Saturday 24th Jan 2015
Today we started looking at a new issue – the challenges likely to be faced when the schools re-open when the ebola crisis is over. There will be three groups of students to consider: the new arrivals (through the ICC, OICC or directly from their villages) who are not familiar with the EducAid system and ethos, which differs greatly from other schools in Sierra Leone; the returning students who have been out of education since last August; and those who have been in EducAid all through the crisis, because they had no family to go to in the August holidays, when the state of emergency was declared. The trainees are from six different EducAid schools, so in their pairs they considered their concerns for each of these groups, thinking about all aspects of wellbeing.
We discussed the issue of stigma, and – surprisingly – this hasn’t been found to be an issue in the two EducAid schools which already accept children from the ICC and OICC. The staff talk to students in the relevant schools before students join them from the isolation centres, to explain that the children are confirmed to be free of ebola, but have had some difficult experiences in their lives and need kindness and support. They continue to monitor the situation once the new children have arrived, and up to now have not seen any examples of discrimination or exclusion.
Structured recreational activities, or ‘activities with a purpose’ can be used to strengthen many aspects of wellbeing. They can be used to teach life skills such as problem solving, decision making, good communication, interpersonal relationship skills, cooperation, coping with stress and coping with emotions, as well as values such as respect, fairness, inclusion, respect for diversity, responsibility and acceptance. I introduced this concept to the trainees, and shared various resources with them on a memory stick. I also demonstrated an ’activity with a purpose’, designed to encourage participants to think about how it feels to be excluded from activities, and what they can do to make sure this does happen to children in their schools, as much as possible.
The trainees then spent the rest of the day working in groups to identify an activity that they want to try with a group of children, and planning for it. Planning is such a crucial part of this process, it involves thinking about the needs of the target group of students, considering the goals one wishes to reach, how one can reach them, with which activities and how to evaluate the result intended. By the end of the day all three groups had planned a different activity, with clear objectives, a structured activity, and a follow-up discussion designed to help the children focus on the relevant issues. Tomorrow they will all be trying out their planned activities with groups of children in the school we’re based in.
Monday 26th Jan 2015
This morning three teams of trainees ran three separate ’activities with a purpose’ with groups of children. I was able to overhear one of the groups, which struggled to explain the instructions for the activity to a group of small children, all around six years old. When I came back later, I saw the team repeating the activity, much more successfully, with a group of 10-12 year old children. Up on the football field, a second team were standing in a circle with a group of children, singing and dancing and getting to know each other before the activity began. The third team was doing something similar with a group of older children (aged 12-15) in the ICC.
In the afternoon, all three teams reported back. Most had chosen activities designed to focus on strengthening social relationships through developing respect, cooperation and inclusion. All groups experienced challenges during the activities, and we discussed how they could overcome these in future. For example, giving clear instructions for the activities was difficult but two groups found that giving a short demonstration or role play helped to clarify. It was clear that at least two people were needed to run these activities well. In one group, a boy could not participate because he only spoke his local language (Temne), not Krio or English. His place in the activity was taken by one of the facilitators, but we discussed how this boy could still have been given a role (e.g. signalling when the time came for the children to change places by clapping loudly) and the importance of ensuring that he was included in some way.
We’re now coming to the end of the training, and are starting to think about how the participants can put what they have learned into practice in their schools. A clear action plan should be developed for each school by the end of tomorrow. We started working on this today by assessing the current situation in each school. This involved reviewing the ’domains of wellbeing’ we introduced on the first day, and considering the ways in which the schools strengthen each ’domain of wellbeing’ and the challenges experienced in relation to each. By the end of the day, we had some idea of where each school is at the moment in terms of the wellbeing of the school population, and some of the challenges anticipated in maintaining and continuing to strengthen wellbeing once the schools re-open and new and returning students join the school population. The next step will be to build on this by identifying some ways the new skills and knowledge acquired through this training can be applied to mitigate some of the challenges, and strengthen children’s wellbeing.
Tuesday 27th Jan 2015.
But first – self care. The EducAid staff work in circumstances that are sometimes difficult, with children from a wide variety of backgrounds, and they themselves have lived through a war and now the ebola crisis. They will soon be working with new students and returning students who have experienced various challenges in their lives, including having lost parents and relatives to ebola. The staff need to ensure that they take care of their own wellbeing if they are to be able to give these children the support they need. So the first session of the day focused on understanding and managing our own stress.
Following that, the hard work began. Yesterday, we carried out a rough assessment of the areas of psychosocial wellbeing that could be strengthened in EducAid schools. The next step was to review these and identify those that we thought could be addressed, in whole or in part, using the skills learned during the training. We also considered the eleven indicators of change that EducAid staff and students identified as part of their monitoring and evaluation strategy a couple of years ago, since psychosocial approaches could help to strengthen these aspects of students’ wellbeing (e.g. increased confidence). The two staff from each school then went through this list of potential issues to be addressed and considered which applied to their school, then identified five priority issues to be addressed using the psychosocial approaches they had learned. For example, in one secondary school, the five priority issues identified were: reducing bullying/ teasing; reducing sexual harassment amongst students; supporting students who are distressed or grieving; supporting those who feel sad at being separated from parents; and increasing students’ concern for others.
Each school team then considered which of the approaches they had learned during the training might help them to address their priority issues. They then developed a plan of which other teachers (and in some cases students) they would train in these approaches, and how they would ensure that the skills, techniques and approaches were implemented following the training. This included a system of teachers supporting each other to use the approaches, and monitoring how they were being used. At the end of this planning process, each school team had an action plan that was relevant to their specific needs and which they felt confident about implementing.
That deserves a certificate!
Generally I’m quite reluctant to give certificates at the end of a training programme, especially without some form of assessment. However, in this case I was happy to do so. All the participants had really worked hard to learn the skills and approaches in the classroom, and to practice using them with children in the school where the training was being conducted. They had all submitted reports reflecting on their practice sessions, and had demonstrated an understanding of the issues. So, certificates it was, and there was great rejoicing. In this case, completing the training really felt like a huge achievement for all of us, and was something worth celebrating.
“I have really felt privileged to be part of the pilot of the ‘Peer Education for Health and Well being’ programme because to me it has been a very concrete example of genuine ‘joined-up’ thinking! My own work in Scotland has made me very concerned about the acute isolation that many refugees and asylum seekers experience.
So, Alison, how did it all start?
As Michelle Hunt, from North East Health Improvement teams , put it “the idea for the project came about through a meeting over a coffee between staff from Health and the SRC. One of those conversations when you put the world to rights in half an hour! So back came a few scribbles on an A4 sheet about how we could support asylum seekers and refugees dispersed across the North East of Glasgow: an exciting and different approach, reaching out across the area, using peer education to engage, signpost and empower. A real asset-based approach!”. This conversation picked up on some of the findings from ‘Integration or isolation? Mapping social connections and well-being amongst refugees in Glasgow.’ (NHS, Greater Glasgow & Clyde Strang, A. & Quinn, N., 2014). The study confirmed that too many refugees and asylum seekers feel trapped in the ‘four walls’ of their accommodation. Although they can see the negative impact that this has on their mental health, they know very little about support services available to them. We found that even those who did meet with others (usually from their own country of origin) knew very little about the resources available in Glasgow to support their health and wellbeing.
And, what is the Refugee Peer Education model?
The ‘Peer Education for Health and Well being’ project addresses this issue very directly by supporting and equipping refugees or asylum seekers to build trusting relationships with each other and share knowledge with their peers. The project has been very practical providing a supportive context, good training and facilitation and formal and informal information about health and wellbeing and the diversity of resources available in Glasgow. Peer educators are the best ambassadors about the project and I recommend you read Sogand’s post to find out more and learn about ways to support the project.
And what are the main benefits for participants?
It is clear that project participants are now more confident to address the health challenges of their own lives. In addition, many are living healthier lives because – as they say – for the first time they have found people to do things with. It has been especially striking how those who have acted as volunteer Peer Educators have grown in skills and confidence. I know that most of those attending the ‘New Scots’ conference this year, were deeply impressed by Peer Educators who spoke powerfully about the need to equip refugees and asylum seekers to help themselves and their communities. The pilot project has demonstrated that with the right support and input peers can enable each other to improve their health and well-being.
( and you can find out more about the Scottish Refugee Council’s work at: http://www.scottishrefugeecouncil.org.uk/ )
As soon as the first earthquake struck, our alumni Prakah Shahi (who studied at IIHD for his MSc in Sexual and Reproductive health in 2013) and his wife Pasang Devi Tamang (also an alumni of QMU) took their own initiative, raising funds immediately from family and friends to support those most affected. Although Prakash now works for the Nepali Technical Assistance Group (NTAG) , he and Pasang by themselves, organised this local effort to support the basic needs of local populations after the 2 earthquakes in Nepal. Here is their first-hand account as we received it:
“We put our life at risk! we wanted to help Thuman village which lies in remote part of Nepal and the way to reach there is either by walk or by helicopter there is no access of transportation! Our plan was to send all our relief supplies via helicopter because it is impossible to supply all the stuff walking (We had 12 tons of stuff)… but our relief stuff were still stuck at Dhunche. We were unable to suppy all the foods that we had but we wanted to supply some foods to village with the help of 10 local people and couple of helicopter flights which carries only 7/8 sacks of rice. When we realized we were not getting a helicopter we asked local leaders for help so that we could reach our target villages with our supplies and we got help from 10 local people who helped us to carry our light stuffs like biscuits, noodles, chocolates, glucose, matches and medicines on our back! We had lots of problem on the way to Thuman, first day we had to lose one friend who came back to Kathmandu due to health problems, now he is fine. We didn’t realise our roads would be so scary and all our road would be blocked by landslides. Yes most of the roads to Thuman were blocked and we had to walk on the big stones and when winds were coming we were thinking of other big land slides because lots of stones were falling down from the hills. After six days we were back here in Kathmandu. we didn’t realize it would take six days. Actually, we had initially planned for four days but when we reached Kalikasthan, Rasuwa and when we knew we were not getting a helicopter, we changed the plan and we all made decision to reach the village by walking because we wanted to reach to people who are in need of help/support and we made it. we had to walk for couple of days to reach there and couple of days to come back to catch a bus. we walked for up to 10 hours per day……Eventually we arrived in Thuman, Rasuwa… we saw that 100 percent of houses are damaged by earthquake. people are living in different tents, mills and schools. up to five household are living in a tent. So, The first need we identified with the discussion with local people is the need for shelter, Tents, all the people are asking for tents because they want to escape from raining and bring their stuff out from damaged house so that they can rebuild or manage their houses. Nepal government has sent 72 tents for 304 household which is not enough, so we need more tents, urgently, we are appealing to all for support.”
On one of the days of their trip (4th May), Prakash and his colleagues also ran a health camp where their clinical team member, Manoj Poudel , conducted basic health check ups for over 123 people. At that point the risk of epidemic seemed low in that particular location.
Prakash and Pasang are back in Kathmandu, safe after the second earthquake which was also extremely scary, and they are continuing their efforts. Now they will be working on a long-term project for the reconstruction of the villages and coordinating with one local organisation called Himalayan health care foundation.
As we post these news, QMU is also holding an Awareness Day for Nepal, to raise vital funds to support people affected by these devastating earthquakes. This event will provide essential funds for students from Nepal, who are currently studying at the University, and students at the University’s partner institution Silver Mountain School of Hotel Management in Kathmandu.
We at IIHD, will keep posting more blogs from our colleagues in Nepal, as they reach us.
The 7.8-magnitude earthquake is now known to have killed more than 7,500 people and injured more than 14,500. More than 4,000 aid workers from around the world have been helping with relief and rescue operations. For those who have survived a week on, the living, those trapped in remote areas, are desperate for help, but hard to reach. Many have broken bones. Some face the threat of crush syndrome – where the kidneys start to fail. And without safe ways to dispose of waste, drinking water is in danger of being contaminated by fatal bugs. In some places, public toilets are overflowing. The World Health Organization (WHO) is on alert for any outbreaks of diarrhoeal diseases including infections such as cholera. According to their experts, there have been some sporadic cases of diarrhoeal illness reported in makeshift camps. Though things aren’t near outbreak proportions, the coming rainy season could make things worse. The DEC has launched an appeal in the UK (http://www.dec.org.uk) for people to donate.
Our IIHD students from Nepal and their friends have activated the Queen Margaret University Community with its own Nepal appeal, IIHD is also getting involved through its community via Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/groups/qmuiihd), and news from colleagues in Nepal is reaching us.
But of course, psychological help is also needed, urgently. People are shocked, distressed, they have lost their livelihoods, their relatives and sometimes almost entire villages are gone. IIHD is trying to offer support, through The Mental Health & Psychosocial Network (http://mhpss.net/) a QMU-based network which promotes better mental health and community support in humanitarian emergencies via an online platform allowing people and organisations to share resources, build knowledge and develop the skills required to respond to the impact of conflict, disaster and chronic adversity. The MPHSS has set up a Nepal 2015 Earthquake Response Group, which colleagues can join and find resources at: http://mhpss.net/groups/current-mhpss-emergency-responses/nepal-2015-earthquake-response/
Individuals and families in Nepal, as elsewhere, will have suffered enormous emotional and social consequences as well as material ones, from exposure to this disaster, and will need ongoing psychosocial support in the future. IIHD hopes to continue to provide such support through the MPHSS network and all its other activities.
On 14th March, Severe Tropical Cyclone Pam hit Vanuatu , an Oceanian island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. At least 7 people are known to have lost their lives in the archipelago nation according to the Vanuatu Government; however, United Nations officials state that 16 were killed.The storm’s impacts were also felt, albeit to a lesser extent, to other islands in the South Pacific, most notably the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and New Zealand. According to UNICEF, at least 132,000 people have been impacted by Tropical Cyclone Pam, of whom 54,000 are children. Communication across the country was crippled, with only one cellular tower in Port Vila remaining operational. The power grid was devastated as well and officials estimated repairs could take weeks. Four days after the storm, nearly 60 of the nation’s inhabited islands remained cut-off from the outside world. UNICEF has estimated that up to 90 percent of the buildings in Vanuatu have been affected by Tropical Cyclone Pam. Hospitals, schools and water supply are either compromised or destroyed.
A week after the disaster, The Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Network (MHPSS), a QMU-based network launched in January 2010 and co-founded by Senior Research Fellow at IIHD Dr Alison Strang, set up its Vanuatu’s Cyclone Response 2015 Group, for those working on the MHPSS emergency response to Tropical Cyclone Pam which hit Vanuatu: http://mhpss.net/groups/current-mhpss-emergency-responses/vanuatu-cyclone-response-2015/ .
This QMU-based network promotes better mental health and community support in humanitarian emergencies via an online platform that allows people and organisations to share resources, build knowledge and develop the skills required to respond to the impact of conflict, disaster and chronic adversity. Individuals, families and entire communities suffer serious emotional and social consequences from exposure to conflict, and disaster. In such humanitarian settings, it is a priority to improve the psychosocial well-being of children and adults and to address serious mental health problems. However it is often difficult for practitioners and policy-makers responding to crises on the ground to have access to the best resources and advice from their peers or researchers in other parts of the world. This is what the MHPSS Network does, by providing a platform for colleagues to meet online, engage in discussion through interest groups, and exchange technical resources through a digital library.
If you work in this field, you can join and share on: http://mhpss.net/groups/current-mhpss-emergency-responses/vanuatu-cyclone-response-2015/ . Please share resources, situation reports, assessment reports, coordination updates and agency contact details in this group.
( copyright independent.co.uk)
Alastair Ager has worked in international health and development for almost a quarter of a century. He was foundation director of the Institute of International Health and Development (IIHD) at Queen Margaret University and senior research manager for the UK’s Department for International Development. In July, after 10 years at Columbia University, he will return to the IIHD as director.
Where and when were you born?
Birmingham, UK in 1956.
How has this shaped you?
My brother and I were first-generation university attenders. It has taken me 40 years to really work out how the “system” works, and I am keen to help those from similar backgrounds negotiate their way through higher education. It has also left me a lifelong Birmingham City fan whose pulse still quickens at 4.45pm UK time on a Saturday.
What is your primary focus when you take up your new role?
Creating ever-stronger links between research, teaching and programme engagement at the IIHD. Engaging in the Syria crisis over the past two years has convinced me more than ever of the value of this integrated approach.
How well has the world reacted to the Ebola crisis?
I think the Ebola epidemic has been significant not just because of the number of lives lost but because it has represented a major challenge to assumptions about our capacity to control disease. It has demonstrated how fragile health systems are in parts of West Africa, with loss of health personnel and disruption of travel likely having resulted in far more indirect than direct deaths from the disease. It has also shown up fragility in our mechanisms of global coordination of response, with delays in decision-making and implementation, and the potential for misplaced public fears regarding returning health workers.
Has the media attention to the Ebola outbreak changed attitudes to serious illnesses that afflict thousands of people but that aren’t necessarily given column inches?
Public consciousness of health needs and concerns of other populations has never been greater. Media coverage and social media provide such vivid insights. These and other forces of globalisation have combined to establish a strong sense of global connectedness, particularly among students.
Is there an impending global health/humanitarian crisis that wider society isn’t aware of, or existing situations that are not getting the coverage they need?
The situation in Syria and neighbouring countries remains deeply troubling as both a political crisis and a health crisis. The displacement of half a million Palestinians registered in Syria – twice dislocated, first from Palestine, and now from or within Syria – is a poorly appreciated dimension.
What advice would you give to your younger self?
I’d be tempted to suggest specialisation and commitment to a specific research theme that you can potentially “mine” for decades. But I’d secretly hope I would avoid such pragmatic advice, and celebrate the opportunities for engagement in diverse topics. Columbia has been a great place to explore the interdisciplinarity sown in my heart at Keele University [while an undergraduate].
If you were a prospective university student facing £9,000 a year fees, would you go again or go straight into work?
A tough call. My undergraduate days at Keele were hugely influential on my formation in terms of values, intellect and approach. I grew up there, and it set me on a path for employment and vocation. But I recognise that for many the workplace provides just that sort of testing ground for character and commitments. I certainly advise students to seek employment after their first degree before considering postgraduate study.
Tell us about someone you’ve always admired.
I don’t have a specific hero. The current focus of my admiration is a local doctor in Damascus coordinating health programmes for displaced Syrians. He has such grace and commitment in a hazardous, challenging environment.
What kind of undergraduate were you?
One who received a government grant.
What was your most memorable moment at university?
My first utterance at university – after my mum had dropped me off in the car park of the students’ union – displayed rather weak assimilation of the language of institutions of advanced learning. Approaching the young woman behind the welcome desk, I assembled a rather hesitant – and shamingly adolescent – “I’m fresh today”.
What are the best and worst things about your job?
Having so many things going on at the same time. Having so many things going on at the same time.
If you were universities minister for a day, what policy would you introduce?
I’d strengthen the expectations regarding research impact, both within the research excellence framework and through greater engagement of research users in the research funding councils.